PERGOLESI Stabat Mater / Abbado

Share

GIOVANNI B. PERGOLESI

Stabat Mater
Salve Regina
Violinkonzert
Violin Concerto
Rachel Harnisch · Sara Mingardo
Julia Kleiter · Giuliano Carmignola
Orchestra Mozart · Claudio Abbado
Int. Release 24 Aug. 2009
1 CD / Download
0289 477 8077 9 CD DDD AH
ARCHIV Produktion
Pergolesi Year 2010 arrives early with a great recording


Liste de titres

Giovanni Battista Pergolesi (1710 - 1736)
Stabat Mater

Sara Mingardo, Rachel Harnisch, Orchestra Mozart, Claudio Abbado

Rachel Harnisch, Orchestra Mozart, Claudio Abbado

Rachel Harnisch, Sara Mingardo, Orchestra Mozart, Claudio Abbado

Sara Mingardo, Orchestra Mozart, Claudio Abbado

Rachel Harnisch, Sara Mingardo, Orchestra Mozart, Claudio Abbado

Rachel Harnisch, Orchestra Mozart, Claudio Abbado

Sara Mingardo, Orchestra Mozart, Claudio Abbado

Rachel Harnisch, Sara Mingardo, Orchestra Mozart, Claudio Abbado

Sara Mingardo, Orchestra Mozart, Claudio Abbado

Rachel Harnisch, Sara Mingardo, Orchestra Mozart, Claudio Abbado

Concerto for Violin in B Flat Major

edited by Federico Agostinelli

13.
0:00
5:11

14.
0:00
3:37

15.
0:00
3:41

Giuliano Carmignola, Orchestra Mozart, Claudio Abbado

Salve Regina in C Minor

edited by Federico Agostinelli

Julia Kleiter, Orchestra Mozart, Claudio Abbado

Durée totale de lecture 1:04:43

. . . when Claudio Abbado is at the helm of a project, one automatically sits up and listens . . . the zest of Carmignola¿s performance, together with Abbado¿s crisp rhythmicality and spruce delineation of light and shade, give it life . . . all of them bringing grace to their singing with tonal richness and expressive touches of verbal colouring. Abbado¿s own infallible sensitivity to this music is a compelling factor, imbuing the W performances with freshness, energy and elegance.

. . . [Stabat Mater] in a striking performance that manages to be at once devotional and operatic. There's a fiery austerity in the conducting and string playing, but a lute threads its way playfully through the textures and the arias are much more extravagantly decorated than we've heard before . . . The real treat here is the Violin Concerto, played with casual sensuality and great elegance by Giuliano Carmignola.

. . . his commitment to period style is never in doubt, even if he is a "romantic" at heart. He has exceptional soloists: Rachel Harnisch and Sara Mingardo in the Stabat, ravishing in the harmonic suspensions of their duets; a . . . lovely toned Julia Kleiter in the Salve; and the exemplary Giuliano Carmignola in the rarely recorded Violin Concerto, a little masterpiece, all but forgotten by the mainstream.

Abbado and the young period instruments players of his Bologna-based Orchestra Mozart chart its poignant changes with loving detail, and the two soloists (soprano Rachel Harnisch and the rich-toned contralto Sara Mingardo) blend beautifully. Soprano Julia Kleiter sings a Salve Regina in C minor that¿s cut from the same cloth as the Stabat Mater, and Giuliano Carmignola plays a buoyant Violin Concerto in B flat.


. . . a most enjoyable and revealing disc.

"Salve regina" is sung with an attractive lightness by Julia Kleiter . . . [The Violin Concerto] features the charismatic playing of Giuliano Carmignola, and its gentle Largo is the highlight of the disc.

Giuliano Carmignola, always an exciting artist, gives a splendid account, enjoying the close interaction Pergolesi's writing affords between orchestra and soloist while revelling in the numerous opportunities for virtuosic display . . . these readings exhibit all the energy, as well as the occasional rough edge, associated both with live performance and, in the case of the orchestral players, youth. They also exhibit the depth and sophistication associated with a conductor such as Ahbado.

The Violin Concerto in B flat, little-known and seldom recorded, is a delightful piece. Carmignola plays the virtuosic and stratospheric figuration with relaxed charm.

. . . ein erstklassiges junges Orchester, das flexibler agiert als ein Klangkörper mit langer Tradition . . . [Pergolesi]: Der Klang ist fließend und transparent. . .


. . . ein erstklassiges junges Orchester, das flexibler agiert als ein Klangkörper mit langer Tradition . . . Abbado kann aus jedem das Beste herausholen. Jeder übernimmt Verantwortung und kann sich zugleich frei entfalten . . . Der Klang ist fließend und transparent, die Tempi sind rasch . . .

Freilich dirigiert kein Geringerer als Claudio Abbado mit feingeistiger Inbrunst . . . Rachel Harnischs samtiges und Sara Mingardos edelbitteres Stimmtimbre reiben sich . . . köstlich. Unbekannter Pergolesi-Nachschub ist schon versprochen, auf den hier zunächst ein pfiffiges Violinkonzert mit Giuliano Carmignola neugierig macht.

Das "Stabat Mater dolorosa" . . . kommt dem Musikverständnis in Abbados Spätstil besonders entgegen. Fern aller romantischen Espressivo-Anmutung herrscht die äußerste Diskretion der Streicherbegleitung, eine extreme Einfachheit und zarte Innigkeit in Artikulation und Tonbewegung, die auch den Hörer bewegen kann. Höchste stilistische Klarheit als Schmucklosigkeit. Gleich der Einstieg in den ersten der zwölf Textabschnitte, diese im Leidensgefühl sanft wiegende Bewegung zweier Frauenstimmen, zeigt, was sich ein Dirigent der Opernästhetik und traditionellen Symphonik im Umgang mit der historischen Aufführungspraxis Alter Musik aneignen konnte . . . Rachel Harnisch leuchtkräftig ausschwingender Sopran und Sara Mingardos ausdruckswarme Altstimme, deren rasche Solo-Arie "Quae moerebat et dolebat" der Sängerin mit dem dunklen Timbre in der Schwerelosigkeit und Flexibilität großartig gelingt. Schwierig, den Höhepunkt der Darstellung zu benennen: Ist es das schmerzbetonte "O quam tristis" oder der impulsive polyphone Satz des "Fac, ut ardeat" in rhythmischer Eleganz, das kunstvoll elegische "Sancta Mater" oder das Schlussduett "Quando corpus morietur", musiziert in einem ergreifend persönlichen Tonfall lyrisch sich verströmender Resignation -- wie ein blutjunger Italiener des frühen 18. Jahrhunderts an der Schwelle des Todes Schubert vorausdenken kann, macht die Aufnahme ergreifend deutlich . . .

Großen Anteil am Gelingen des Projekts haben die Sängerinnen: Rachel Harnisch mit elegantem, vielfarbigem Sopran, Sara Mingardo mit erdigem Alt. Den Tonfall kontrollierter, gewissermaßen keuscher Ekstase, den diese Musik braucht, treffen sie genau.

An Strukturklarheit ist diese Version kaum zu überbieten . . . Zu Kleiters hinreißend bewegter Stimme werden Abbados Streicher aus Bologna viel verbindlicher, wie auch bei der Rarität dieser Produktion zum 300. Geburtstag Pergolesis . . . [Violin Concerto]: mit Giuliano Carmignola hört man es gern -- er ist der unübertreffliche König der italienischen Barockgeiger. Pergolesis entscheidende Qualität aber, die einzigartige Schwerelosigkeit zwischen alten Ritualen und neuer Individualität, hat Abbado in beiden seiner grundverschiedenen Perspektiven aus 25 Jahren erreicht.

[Die CD eignet sich] hervorragend, um gerade im Jahr 2010 Pergolesis Musik näher kennenzulernen. Claudio Abbado leitet das nur 17-köpfige Orchestra Mozart zu einem unaufgeregten, nie langweiligen Spiel an. Auf eine sehr angenehme Weise betont er Pergolesis Klangreibungen, indem er sie deutlich, aber weich im Ton ausspielen lässt. Das gibt der Musik einen besonderen Charme, zumal Erkenntnisse der historischen Aufführungspraxis gewinnbringend eingeflossen sind . . . Reizvoll ist die Neueinspielung auch deshalb, weil mit Rachel Harnisch und Sara Mingardo zwei geschmackvoll und flexibel intonierende Opernstimmen das Orchester ergänzen, die auch für dramatische Zuspitzung sorgen. Ähnliches gilt für Julia Kleiter, die den Solopart im "Salve Regina" -- erwartungsgemäß bravourös -- übernommen hat.

Seine Vertonung des "Stabat Mater" machte den Komponisten Giovanni Battista Pergolesi berühmt. Noch heute gehört dieses geistliche Vokalwerk des früh vollendeten und gestorbenen Meisters zu den beliebtesten seiner Art -- was sich auch in der Diskographie widerspiegelt . . . [der Konzertmitschnitt] mit Rachel Harnisch und Sara Mingardo sei all jenen empfohlen, die den letzten Schritt in Richtung alte Instrumente nicht zu gehen gewillt sind.

Ici, deux oeuvres sacrées, Stabat Mater et Salve Regina retiennent l'attention: l'allant allégé de l'Orchestre Mozart se prête évidemment à la délicatesse fervente du Stabat Mater et le concours des solistes, excellentes de bout en bout, Rachel Harnisch et Sara Mingardo, fusionne idéalement au geste du chef italien : lecture simple, humble, humaine, avec en plus des cordes, soit le luth soit l'orgue: ampleur, respiration, effusion, déploration surtout, les deux voix trouvent le ton juste. Celui d'une retenue économe, essentielle, épurée, nettoyée de toute emphase . . . Abbado malgré l'austérité de l'instrumentarium (cordes seules, basse continue et voix), approfondit le message de méditation sur le sacrifice du Fils et la sainte douleur de la Mère. En liaison avec ses ultimes recherches esthétiques, l'austérité de l'écriture trouvent sous sa direction, une vérité de ton confondante. Le sens de chaque épisode y est particulièrement ciselé, sobre, d'une portée naturelle. Aucun affect ni effet d'aucune sorte . . . Julia Kleiter réussit une lecture toute en intériorité là aussi sans excès d'expression, dialoguée avec les cordes qui semblent mettre en lumière la langueur déplorée du texte, jusqu'à la fin murmurée, littéralement suspendue. Abbado se reconnaît à cette pudeur très incarnée de chaque section. Le Concerto pour violon en si bémol majeur se glisse entre ces deux sommets de la ferveur la plus prenante, comme une respiration : il est attribué sans réserve au corpus de Pergolesi qui sait réserver à l'orchestre un rôle moteur, dialoguant avec le soliste. Giuliano Carmignola trouve lui aussi le ton idéal en particulier dans la partie central (largo) où c'est encore l'intimité et la pudeur qui renforce la sincérité du propos. La sûreté du geste d'Abbado convainc, sa précision comme sa tendresse élégiaque dans un Concerto très personnel: écoutez l'assise des notes pointées à l'unisson du dernier mouvement, comme la fluidité ample et oxygénée de la basse continue, enveloppant la partie du violon solo. Superbe disque Pergolesi. Amorce prometteuse de l'année Pergolesi.

Son invention ornementale dans les mouvements rapides comme la sensibilité distinguée du Largo sont des modèles. Et celle, surtout, du Salve Regina en ut mineur, illuminé par le timbre pur et limpide de Julia Kleiter . . . Son legato dans l'aigu est divin.

    Pergolesi Year 2010 celebrates the birth 300 years ago of a first rank composer whose death at 26 robbed music of a singular voice

  • Autumn’s 2009 release of this first volume of a three album all-Pergolesi project, featuring Orchestra Mozart conducted by Claudio Abbado
  • 25 years after recording the Stabat Mater, Pergolesi’s most popular piece, Maestro Abbado unveils his new vision of this sublime score with a cast of splendid singers
  • Playing a priceless Guarneri Giuliano Carmignola, winner of Germany’s Echo award and the French Diapason d’or, records Pergolesi’s Violin Concerto for the first time
  • In January 2010 we will release Pergolesi´s Dixit Dominus (CD 477 8465) followed by Messa di San Emidio / Aria from Guglielmo Duca d´Aquitania (CD 477 8463) in March 2010

Insights

Pergolesi
Stabat Mater · Salve Regina · Violin Concerto

Final works not infrequently have a very special aura to them. In Pergolesi's case we are also dealing with the countless legends that have grown up around him. Both the aura and the legends are no doubt due to two facts above all: not only did Pergolesi die when he was only 26, encouraging commentators to see in him a darling of the gods snatched away before his time, but we know so little about his life. He was born in Iesi on 4 January 1710 as Giovanni Battista Draghi. That he was confirmed as early as May 1711 may well be an indication of his poor health: two of his brothers and a sister all died in early infancy. Only later did he change his name to Pergolesi, in the process paying tribute to Pergola, the town from where his forebears hailed.

Pergolesi learned the rudiments of music in Iesi and was evidently so gifted that aristocratic patrons paid for him to study at the Conservatorio dei Poveri di Gesù Cristo in Naples, a city that was then Italy's leading centre of music. The date of his admission is uncertain but must have lain sometime between 1720 and 1724. He is first documented as a student in 1725, while the conservatory records for 1729 list him as a “capoparanza", in other words, as first violinist in the student orchestra. In addition to the violin, he also studied composition, his teachers including Leonardo Vinci and Francesco Durante. His first work was a sacred music drama that dates from 1731 and presumably marks the end of his years at the conservatory.

Pergolesi soon started to receive prestigious commissions as the doors of influential private houses and major opera companies in Naples and Rome were opened up to him. He turned his hand with equal success to all the genres of his day, from opera seria and the commedia musicale to the intermezzo, sacred music and instrumental works. But he had only five years left in which to complete his compositional œuvre. Pergolesi died on 16 March 1736 at the Franciscan monastery at Pozzuoli, a much-frequented resort near Naples, where earlier, too, he seems to have sought a cure or at least alleviation of his illness.

It was here, during the final months of his life, that Pergolesi wrote his Stabat Mater at the request of the Cavalieri della Vergine dei Dolori in Naples. It was intended to replace the setting that Alessandro Scarlatti had produced eleven years earlier for the same aristocratic confraternity. The Stabat Mater is one of the most famous poems to be used as a sequence in the Roman liturgy and is believed to have been written in the 12th century by Jacopone da Todi, a lay member of the Franciscan order. It was probably already being used as part of the liturgy in the 14th century, but it was not until 1727, during the reign of Pope Benedict XIII, that it was taken over into the breviary. Since then it has been a regular part of the Catholic liturgy and is either spoken or sung on the Feast of the Seven Sorrows of Mary and on the Friday before Holy Week.

The Stabat Mater has a long history of musical settings stretching from Josquin Desprez in the 15th century to such 20th-century moderns as Francis Poulenc and Krzysztof Penderecki. But Pergolesi's setting has always enjoyed a very special status within this tradition. True, the work contains a handful of passages such as the “Fac, ut ardeat cor meum" and the final “Amen" in which Pergolesi falls back on traditional contrapuntal procedures. Far more important, however, is his decision to include novel means of expression derived above all from the world of opera. Equally striking is the composer's rejection of the musical language of the Baroque, with its predilection for the doctrine of the affections. Instead, simplicity and transparency set the tone, a wilful reduction of the musical and rhetorical resources which - arguably for the first time in the history of sacred music - are placed entirely in the service of a wholly personal experience of religion.

This new approach is clear from the very opening bars of Pergolesi's setting, with the anguished dissonance of their intervals of a second. One high point of the work as a whole is undoubtedly the duet, “Sancta mater", in which operatic emotion is placed in the service of religious inwardness. It is no wonder, then, that the work was as reviled as it was revered. Above all, Padre Giambattista Martini, one of the most influential writers on music at this period, condemned the often theatrical, secular character of the piece, whereas its many admirers saw in it the realization of a new ideal in church music, adumbrating the Age of Sensibility and pointing the way forward with its melodic expressive intensity to the precursors of Classicism.

By 1752, when an Italian opera company performed his intermezzo La serva padrona at the Académie Royale in Paris, Pergolesi had become a fashionable composer. In the “Querelle des Bouffons", which revolved around the question of the priority of the new Italian opera buffa over the traditional French tragédie lyrique, representatives of the Enlightenment under Jean-Jacques Rousseau championed Pergolesi, with the result that from then on his name was associated with the party of musical progress. In turn this meant that the number of works falsely attributed to Pergolesi eventually outgrew that of his authentic compositions. In the case of the Violin Concerto in B flat major, however, Pergolesi's authorship is beyond doubt, and the three-movement work unequivocally reveals its composer's individual imprint. In the opening movement, above all, the orchestra is far more than a mere accompanist even in the concertante passages and does more than simply cue in the soloist's eloquent virtuosity. In the slow movement, with its gently rocking siciliana rhythm, the orchestral introduction even provides the melodic material for the soloist's cantabile line, and in the final movement the orchestra's sharply dotted rhythms ensure the characteristic note of asperity, around which the violin weaves its often virtuoso lines.

Of all the settings of the Salve Regina that have been attributed to Pergolesi, only four are undoubtedly his. The present version is scored for a soprano soloist and is in C minor (there is also a version for alto in F minor) and is without question the most famous of the four. It is also one of Pergolesi's last works, dating from 1735. Its closeness to the Stabat Mater is clear above all from the opening “Salve Regina", with its anguished intervals of a falling second. A pounding bass rhythm underscores the work's emotionally charged expressivity, while the impulsive motion of the orchestral accompaniment in the “Ad te clamamus" adds a further degree of emotional excitement. Particularly admirable is the unified mood, which follows the text very closely as it veers between elegiac sadness and agitated seriousness, right up to the final calando close, in which the music dies away, having attained a state of ultimate peace.

Werner Pfister
7/2009