Verdi's Life & Works

Operatic composer of unrivalled theatrical instinct and dogged intellectual independence.

(1813 - 1901)

Early Life and Career

More than 100 years after his death, the works of Giuseppe Verdi form a major part of today's opera repertoire. The Drinking Song from La traviata, The Chorus of the Hebrew Slaves from Nabucco and 'La Donna è mobile' from Rigoletto are as well known in popular culture as they are in the world of opera. Father and daughter relationships are a recurrent theme in his work, as are the subjects of injustice, oppression and religious hypocrisy. A profoundly serious man, his final opera was a brilliant comedy.

Verdi liked to give the impression that he came from a peasant background. However, he benefited hugely from an ambitious, middle-class father, who arranged music lessons and many other opportunities for him. Verdi began his education before he was four. When he was seven, his father bought him a spinet. By the age of nine, young Giuseppe was the resident organist at the church of San Michele, Roncole. Aged ten, he moved to Busseto to further his education.

From 1831, he lodged at the home of Antonio Barezzi, a successful merchant and keen amateur musician. There he gave singing and piano lessons to Barezzi's daughter Margherita. Barezzi sponsored his further musical studies in Milan before Verdi returned to Busseto in 1836 as maestro di musica. In the same year, he married Margherita, and they soon had two children. Tragically, Verdi's children died in infancy, and his wife died soon after, leaving him distraught. With his personal life shattered and his professional life disrupted by grief, he turned his focus to composing opera.

La forza del destino

Leonora's father is accidentally shot dead by her lover, Don Alvaro. Carlo (Leonora's brother) swears vengeance and tracks Alvaro to a monastery, is killed in a duel, but not before stabbing Leonore!

Giuseppe Verdi La forza del destino "Pace, pace, mio Dio" (Act 4) Rosalind Plowright, Philharmonia Orchestra, Giuseppe Sinopoli


This is Verdi's grand opera to end all grand operas, featuring a potential cast of hundreds, and enough spectacles and set pieces to rival many a Cecil B. De Mille historical blockbuster.



Giuseppe Verdi Aida "Gloria all'Egitto" (Act 2) Orchestra del Teatro alla Scala di Milano, Claudio Abbado, Coro del Teatro alla Scala di Milano

Don Carlos

Operatic turning point for Verdi,who allows the various strands of the plot to evolve with anaturalness, which almost entirely avoids the short-term,high-impact thrills of his earlier work. 

Giuseppe Verdi Don Carlos Scene et Cantabile: "Elle ne m'aime pas!" (Act 4) Ruggero Raimondi, Orchestra del Teatro alla Scala di Milano, Claudio Abbado


Totally free of the usual operaticset pieces and crowd-pleasing virtuoso numbers, Falstaff iscomposed as a seamless flow of musical poetics. Verdi truly savedhis best till last!

Giuseppe Verdi Falstaff "Ninfe! Elfi! Silfi!" - "Sul fil d'un soffio etesio" (Act 3) Dorothea Röschmann, Bryn Terfel, Adrianne Pieczonka, Berliner Philharmoniker, Claudio Abbado, Rundfunkchor Berlin, Simon Halsey

Il trovatore

Operatic barnstormer with a highly convoluted plot, which transforms such potentially ludicrous incidents as a gypsy throwing the 'wrong' baby onto a bonfire into gripping drama.

Giuseppe Verdi Il trovatore "Di quella pira" (Act 3) Franco Corelli, Siegfried Rudolf Frese, Wiener Philharmoniker, Herbert von Karajan, Chor der Wiener Staatsoper, Kammerchor der Salzburger Festspiele

La traviata

Following its woeful premiere, thesecond performance of La Traviata, given just over a yearlater, was a runaway success and it quickly established itself asthe most popular opera of its time.

Giuseppe Verdi La Traviata "Libiamo ne'lieti calici (Brindisi) (Act 1) Ileana Cotrubas, Plácido Domingo, Chor der Bayerischen Staatsoper München, Bavarian State Orchestra, Carlos Kleiber


Verdi's third opera in which the Assyrian king, Nabucco, is struck mad by a thunderbolt of lightning leaving his daughters to fight it out over an Israelite and the Assyrian throne.

Giuseppe Verdi Nabucco Coro: Introduzione - "Va pensiero, sull'ali dorate" (Act 3) Orchester der Deutschen Oper Berlin, Giuseppe Sinopoli, Chor der Deutschen Oper Berlin


One of the great musical come-backs, at Otello's premiere Verdi was called out by the weeping audience over 20 times and then his carriage was dragged by adoring fans back to his hotel.

Giuseppe Verdi Otello "Credo in un Dio crudel" (Act 2) Sergei Leiferkus, Orchestre de l'Opéra Bastille, Myung Whun Chung


To get Rigoletto past the censors, Verdi had to convince them that it wasn't in bad taste to have a singing hunchback as the central character, and also tone down the Duke's libidinal exploits! 

Giuseppe Verdi Rigoletto "La donna è mobile" - "E là il vostr'uomo" (Duca / Sparafucile, Rigoletto) (Act 3) Carlo Bergonzi, Ivo Vinco, Dietrich Fischer-Dieskau, Orchestra del Teatro alla Scala di Milano, Rafael Kubelik

Simon Boccanegra

Dark, foreboding tale of abduction and murder, which continued Verdi's general trend towards intricate plots of blazing intensity, and includes Come in quest'ora bruna ('How the stars and sea smile').

Giuseppe Verdi Simon Boccanegra Come in quest'ora bruna (Amelia) (Act 1) Mirella Freni, Orchestra del Teatro alla Scala di Milano, Claudio Abbado

Un ballo in maschera

In order to avoid upsetting Swedish sensibilities with 'A Masked Ball', Verdi had the character of the assassinated King Gustave III of Sweden changed to 'Riccardo, Earl of Warwick'!

Giuseppe Verdi Un ballo di maschera "Forse la soglia attinse" - "Ma se m'è forza perderti" (Act 3) Plácido Domingo, Wiener Philharmoniker, Herbert von Karajan

Messa da Requiem

Inspired by the death of writer Alessandro Manzoni, Verdi's Requiem split audiences right down the middle between those who found his operatic style inappropriate - and those who loved it!

Giuseppe Verdi Messa da Requiem 2a. Dies irae RIAS Symphony Orchestra Berlin, Ferenc Fricsay, RIAS Kammerchor, St. Hedwig's Cathedral Choir, Berlin

A Passion for Opera

Verdi's first opera, Oberto, conte di San Bonifacio, had achieved a modest success in Milan in 1839. On the basis of this, he was commissioned to write three operas for La Scala. The first, Un giorno di regno (1840), was a flop, but his follow-up, Nabucco (1842), was such a sensation that Verdi had a stream of new commissions. By 1853 he had written sixteen new operas. These include many of his most popular works, such as MacbethRigolettoIl trovatoreLa traviataUn ballo in MascheraLa forza del destinoDon Carlos,Aida, and Otello. Verdi produced revivals of his older works, and travelled to Venice, Milan, Rome, Naples, Florence, Trieste, Paris and London to supervise stagings. He tried to take control of his artistic legacy by accompanying his opera scores with books of stage directions.

In 1847, Verdi went to Paris to supervise the production of his opera, Jérusalem. He ended up living there for two years, with the soprano Giuseppina Stepponi, who would be his lover until his death. When they returned to Italy in 1849, they caused a scandal because they were not married. However, this did not deter Verdi or Strepponi, and they set up a permanent home in Sant' Agata, near Busseto, in 1851. They married secretly in 1859, finally bowing to social pressure.

By the time La traviata was first performed in 1853, Verdi was the most frequently performed Italian opera composer in Europe. He could command large fees for his work, demand the best singers, and choose the best venues in which to premiere his operas. However, in the years following, his rate of production slowed considerably. During the next 16 years he produced only six new operas. Some, including Don Carlos (1867) and Les vêpres siciliennes (1855), were considerably longer works than he had written before. Others, such as Simon Boccanegra (1857), needed extensive reworking after unsuccessful premieres.

Italian opera had long employed formulas and set structures. This was partly the result of the sheer volume of work required to satisfy public demand. Verdi's early outpouring of operatic works had enabled him to develop his own approach, away from the norm. Although he did not throw away the rule book entirely, he changed what was needed in order to fulfil his own vision. He composed with specific singers' voices in mind so that their roles fitted them like gloves, and continued to base most of his operas on successful plays and novels.

Turning Point and Legacy

During the late 1850s, Verdi showed signs of frustration with writing for the theatre. Between 1858-1861, he stopped composing altogether. He seems to have got back on track withLa forza del destino (1861), but only finished Aida (1871) under duress. Aida was originally commissioned for 1869, and Verdi completed it only after the company threatened to replace him with composer Richard Wagner.

Verdi wrote no new operas for 16 years after Aida. Of his non-operatic works, his 1874 Requiem is the pinnacle. However, he was not quite finished with opera. In 1887, he composed Otello. And in 1893, at the age of 80, he composed his last and possibly greatest opera, Falstaff, based on Shakespeare's The Merry Wives of Windsor and Henry IV. It is a comedy, quite different to much of Verdi's other subject matter. Even more unusually, it ends happily, with the song 'Tutto nel mondo è burla' (Everything in the world is a joke). It was premiered in a flood of publicity - a measure of Verdi's stature as the elder statesman of opera across the world.

It is impossible to overestimate Verdi's popularity and influence both during and after his lifetime. At his funeral in 1901, conductor Arturo Toscanini conducted a vast assembly of musicians from all over Italy at the state funeral. His death was declared an occasion for national mourning. Many thousands of mourners conducted a sombre procession through Milan, accompanied by 'Va pensiero' from Nabucco. It remains the largest public gathering in the history of Italy.